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Old April 10th, 2013, 08:03 AM   #1
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Whats the difference between digital cinema camera and ENG/EFP camera?

I am wondering whats the difference between digital cinema camera and ENG/EFP camera and whats the difference between cinema lenses and ENG/EFP lenses? Can somebody explain to me? I know that cinema cameras are ment for movies etc. and ENG for broadcast, but whats the difference between them? Thanks.
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Old April 10th, 2013, 08:37 AM   #2
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Re: Whats the difference between digital cinema camera and ENG/EFP camera?

ENG cameras were traditionally built with smaller sensors (2/3) so that its easier to keep everything in focus than a S35 sensor (all thing being equal).

ENG cameras were traditionally built to be carried on the shoulder of the cameraman, and were easy to operate solo. For this reason they usually had just a viewfinder (no need for external monitors) and no need for follow focus and no need for elaborate rigs - you just pick them up and go.

ENG cameras often have big old expensive zoom lenses, often with motor driven zooms (something unlikely in cinema cameras) - this is especially useful in news and sports, allowing the operator to reframe live at a constant speed, without causing much disruption to the tv audience.

ENG cameras traditionally met minimum broadcast standards - but its all become blurred these days, so its difficult to tell what the standards are any more. They normally would have had SDI out and genlock for studio integration - something that was not common on prosumer cameras or cinema cameras. But the distinction is more blurred these days, especially as cinemas cameras are digital, and news is being often shot on large sensor cameras (giving the 'film-look' to news broadcasts).

Thats looks like a very sweet hybrid camera.
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Old April 15th, 2013, 12:27 PM   #3
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Re: Whats the difference between digital cinema camera and ENG/EFP camera?

Actually, the topic can be a bit more complex than it might first appear.

ENG and EFP are actually workflows.

In Electronic News Gathering (ENG) the focus is on covering a breaking story. Typically the footage generated will end up being narrated by the reporter or on-set news presenter - so the emphasis is on grabbing field footage that can be edited to support a live style report. The ENG camera-person typically either grabs nat sound via a camera mounted mic, or uses a stick mic to do a live location interview. The point of ENG is that it's real-time and largely unplanned, reacting to events as they unfold.

In Electronic Field Production (EFP) you go out to shoot a pre-scripted story. Since you know the story elements that are pre-planned, it makes more sense to setup and "shoot with intent" to capture the scenes you have already decided will build your story properly. You can rig and hide mics on the participant to give the illusion that the viewer is just "looking in" on naturally occurring events. Lighting is typically more elaborate and multiple takes to get the best performance of each part of the script are common.

In "cinema production" you generally want a camera with enough resolution to work for movie-screen size playback. When you think about movies, the core process is that because one is typically creating a lasting work to entertain large audiences over a long time - rather than content that may have a shorter useful lifespan. Because of that dynamic, cinema generally takes a more planned and precise approach to image making.

In the field, a single lens that can be zoomed to multiple focal lengths is a huge benefit, since you don't have time to swap lenses to achieve particular looks. In a cinema production workflow, it's typically expected that the DP will choose particular lenses (often fast primes) to create shots that capture exactly the view that they feel best fits the communication goals of that scene.

So in the broadest possible terms, Zooms are fast and flexible, if not always optimal. Primes are more complex and require more time to deploy, but can be much faster — a full frame sensor medium range zoom might typically be rated at F4, while a prime can be as fast as F1.2, a huge difference in light gathering ability.

In general, ENG processes is for fast capture and deployment of short life span information (news stories.) EFP is for building general content with medium life spans (e.g. instructional or corporate video type projects.) And Cinema workflows are traditionally used for building precisely crafted content expected to have relatively long life-spans (movies and theatrical docs.)

All of these definitions and rules of thumb are busted all the time. And you can use any tool to make any type of project, but these are some of the broad generatlities in play.

Hope that helps.
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Old April 15th, 2013, 01:47 PM   #4
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Re: Whats the difference between digital cinema camera and ENG/EFP camera?

My perspective slightly different:

Digital Cinema - Non real time use.

ENG - Pseudo real time use. Maybe you're on-camera live, like in a current weather event, or you're capturing and interview and some B-roll, editing it in the truck, and sending the story (for instance a report about the new lunch program at the local school) back before the six o'clock news. Whether live or creating a story from earlier in the day, it's a one camera shoot. Typically on the shoulder or a tripod.

EFP - live events. In the case of sports (or news or SNL), this is used for true live use in a multi-camera environment. It includes tallies and a voice system so the Technical Director can interact with the camera op. This is typically tripod-only, as the lenses used can be very large and heavy. In the case of a game show, the production is done in a live style, rather than in post. They can also be used live in large worship settings.
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Old April 15th, 2013, 02:03 PM   #5
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Re: Whats the difference between digital cinema camera and ENG/EFP camera?

eng is all aboard. Cinema is modular.
On cinema camera, there is no ND filter, no sound processing (or minimal) , and sometime not even a recorder. Lens are totally different (prime) with different mount.
ENG camera is a one man operation, cinema is supposed to be teamwork.
Low light is not an asset for Cinema, if you need more light, you ask the lighting team to bring more.
cinema camera has no mount, like shoulder mount, the tripod has all on it.
and so on...
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Old April 15th, 2013, 03:41 PM   #6
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Re: Whats the difference between digital cinema camera and ENG/EFP camera?

I wouldn't say that cinema digital cameras don't have shoulder mounts, the Arri Alexa and the new Aaton Penelope Delta can be shoulder mounted without accessories. The Alexa is also being used to shoot high end documentaries.
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Old April 15th, 2013, 04:50 PM   #7
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Re: Whats the difference between digital cinema camera and ENG/EFP camera?

yes there a tons of exception, but basically you got it.
Cinema is a lego, you can do anything, but you have to add it (recorder, matte box, filter, handle, follow focus etc...) while the purpose of ENG is to offer ready to shoot.
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